An essay

18 Mar


A diamond 5 star rating

17 Mar

How can dreams be categorised as transcendental idealism? An essay on Moirae, in reference to Kant’s doctrine of transcendental idealism vs transcendental realism. – an essay, by Mehreen Ahmed

12 Mar

This paper focusses on my published book, Moirae. In this, I discuss dreams in the light of Kant’s doctrine of transcendental idealism. From the outset, it should be noted that Kant’s doctrine of transcendental idealism means how an object “appears” in internal thoughts and the subsequent projection or representation of it. The representation is opposed to the objects’ “microscopic” image or what it actually is: “as is”. Kant exemplifies this with a phenomena taken from nature, e.g., the rainbow.

To make this complex doctrine more understandable, he distinguishes between transcendental realism and transcendental idealism. For instance,“the empirical “rainbow in itself” is a collection of water droplets with particular sizes and shapes and spatial relations, while the empirical “rainbow appearance” is the colorful band we see in the sky. The empirical thing in itself corresponds roughly to Lockean primary qualities, while the empirical appearance corresponds roughly to its secondary qualities. For Kant’s own comparison of his idealism to that Lockean distinction see Prolegomena (Ak. 4:289); Allais (2007) is a sophisticated discussion of Kant’s secondary quality analogy.)”

In the context of this premise, and in reference to my book, Moirae, I discuss dreams. How can dreams be categorised as transcendental idealism? Moirae is a dream allegory written in a stream of consciousness style of writing. Reading Moirae, some reviewers have commented that they readily enter in somebody else’s dream. It is not written in grammar, rather littered with many awkward phrases. Central to this discussion, is this character, a young teen-age girl by the name of Nalia. She is born in a village of an imaginary world with two moons, namely, The Lost Winds. Her dreams are the focus of this discussion.

The images which appear in her dreams are often chaotic, disjointed, and scattered. The language or the expressions used in the book maintain consistently an ungrammatical pattern emerging seamlessly in her dreams. Images of death and persecution become rampant in a politically unstable world of her mind. The book creates an atmosphere of the mind, a rarity. What appears in her mind, alone, is a world not linguistically or structurally sound, rather a different world where emergence of awkward phrases and multi-dimensional PoV occur, which explains, “otherness” or an existence of “another.” If we were to take from Kant’s example, the droplets as transcendental reality, and the rainbow as transcendental idealism; droplets translated in the image of a rainbow in the mind, then what Nalia dreams maybe categorised as “appearances” of an image notably existing in a different form of a hyper-reality or transcendental reality of Kant’s definition.

By definition, dreams are an internal construct, just as thoughts are in awakening. Nalia’s dreams contain realistic images, like the cinemas in the mind, which I deem as “appearance”. I choose the word “realistic,” here to make a distinction between sleeping and wakefulness. But what I actually mean is this that the dream in itself is a kind of wakefulness, for as long as the subject/dreamer doesn’t know that she dreams. At any given time, dreams can become a spontaneous and external representation of a hyper reality.

Which brings us to the moot question; what is it that makes Nalia’s wavering dreams/images as something pertaining to transcendental idealism? In the context of the rainbow example above, I would like to suggest that Nalia’s dreaming is in fact her “appearance,” or presumptive representation of a transcendental reality of external objects residing independently in time and space out there, or “as is” under a microscopic scrutiny.

Through this state of her dreaming, objects often “appear,” as persecution and death, chaos and confusion of a highly unstable community, but in a different form. We don’t know what these would look like in transcendental reality. But in her dream line they appear as disjointed images of torture, and killing, dying in the sea, wondering the world as a refugee. Not a pleasant picture. This confused state is further highlighted by the stream of consciousness style of writing, in which linguistics play a pivotal role.

Now let’s analyse the linguistics first; the syntax and the semantics that emerge in her dreams. How can these be incorporated within the definition of transcendental idealism? The language that she views in her dreams, and taken from one of many awkward phrases in her dreaming, Nalia sees her brother MD, inclining his head to respond to his landlady’s call, Angella, in the new land known as the Draviland. Nalia does not see this as it actually is, but in a different format which is incorrect perhaps, but also“different or the other.” That act of “leaning,” she sees it as “inclining from his position.” In the narrator’s description, “MD asked inclining from his position,” as he answers to Angella’s question in broken Kroll language, spoken in that country. The word, “leaning,” would have sufficed semantically and justifiably too, but to her, “leaning” “appears” as “inclining from his position,” when in fact, he was inclining his head. While inclining of the head, should have been the syntactically a correct choice, but those linguistic properties would have to be properties of a transcendental reality. Hence, the narrator, pens down the awkward phrases as they appear in the dream.

Another example of this chaotic disturbance is noted in the construction of the points of views or the PoV, where a discernible clash of multilevel PoV occurs. Even in Nalia’s her wildest dreams, given her rural upbringing and level of exposure, she could never imagine about Shakespeare, the laws of physics or the Greek tragedies. But they emerge seamlessly in her dreams, nonetheless, not in her voice but in the voice of the “other”. How do we explain this? How do we explain the many-fold voices appearing in her head? Dreams can make anything possible. The only possible way, it maybe inferred is if there an outer reality, and that this dream manifests itself into transcendental idealism; the dream reality is eluding and so is transcendental idealism. Why do we see the rainbow, and not the droplets? Perhaps, because this is how our brain processes information. At the time of her dreaming, this is how Nalia’s brain processes this information that she were to dream of “other” voices, quoting Shakespeare and Homer, and in this “otherness,” voices “appear” in her head, pertaining to some hyper-reality of existence.

Although these multilevel PoVs, appear incognisance, insofar as Nalia is concerned, but the narrator understands them and makes a note of it. Her dream hinging on transcendental idealism, images “appear” or “represent” themselves as “not as is,” but as multi-facet switch of a PoV, when “as is” of a hyper reality would have to be something quite different.

Furthermore, in this construct of transcendental idealism, it justifies my use of the device, the stream-of-consciousness, in order to preserve the integrity of an other worldly,“appearance and representation.” Thoughts as confused and chaotic as they are, her visions of the war and persecution, are floating images of another reality which appears like this in her mind as the band of rainbow would, instead of its essential properties of droplets and so on that the actual rainbow is made up of. If say, for instance, the actual war is the transcendental reality, then the resultant effects of that brutality of human condition in the mind is that image of transcendental idealism playing up in her dreams. In a way, the properties of the war or the brutality are foreshadowed by this transcendental idealism of permeated images of a dream, as they “appear” in the mind and “represented” subsequently like the rainbow if you like, to the reader on the outer.

The book ends with the creation of a Shingdi; in her continuous dreaming, an ideal world appears in her mind, which hinges on her village from transcendental or a hyper-reality, but this appearance of Shingdi, of the dream is not anything like her village actually is, but one that of a Utopia.

Waheed Murad: “Emotion recollected in tranquility,” – A prose by Mehreen Ahmed

8 Mar

Waheed Murad: “Emotion recollected in tranquility,” – A prose by Mehreen Ahmed.

Who isn’t smitten by the dashing Waheed Murad? Despite his meteoric success in the stardom, Waheed is a fashion metaphor, class, culture and romantic nostalgia to boot, as Elvis Presley is in rock and roll. When I pay a visit to his filmy website to catch a glimpse of him, I am both intrigued and intimidated just being here. Because, this world is much beyond my comprehension. Yet, I am here. Come to think of it, that’s exactly the kind of effect Waheed Murad has on people. And trust me, as someone who knows nothing about the movie world, let alone Waheed, I am just as enchanted as anyone else, drawn into his aura. Far apart we maybe, but he seems to be hovering on the outskirts of my mind’s eye, whom I now try to fathom. Is he unfathomable? Most likely, but at the cost of being laughed at by all of Waheed’s associates, and perhaps against my better judgement, I set out in a bid, to explore his artistry. The best that there is by a long shot in the Himalayan peninsula.

Not inconsequentially, I cannot but help thinking of the obvious. Very rarely, does one come across a personality of Waheed’s stature in the movie world. Regardless of age, he strikes a chord even with the fourth graders, particularly one girl that comes to mind, who watches his movie, Armaan in grade four and takes a fancy to him. She cannot be made to wake up the next morning to go to school, because, her eyelids are laden with lovesick potion; he, who is a senior by 30 years at least, the same age as her parents. This “chocolate” hero, gives her a flavour of his maddening charms, like he does to millions of crazed, intergenerational women, back in the day, and today. A zesty king of the hearts, this tall man with slightly drooping shoulders, is but not rugged necessarily. He stalks them in their dream and day dream as though Venus, Cupid and Aphrodite with the entire pantheon of love deities have colluded to shoot random arrows with this love message that it is expressly vital.

In the meantime, as the time passes, that fourth grader notably, continue to suffer from love affliction at the risk of being precocious. If this sweet sensation is corrupting in Socratic measure, then so be it. Because, this puppy love, which no hemlock can slay, grows and flourishes like a secret garden in her charmed heart. She does not outgrow this any time soon, although she may have grown out of her dresses. It sinks deep, and freezes in the moment’s rockbottom, with many historical chain of events piled up over it. Primarily, the bad blood and tensions between the East and the West Pakistan, culminating into a brutal civil war, ending in a severed relationship. I don’t want to go into the gory details of the war or its causes. I only want to celebrate the magnetic, Waheed Murad, to prove a point; that he is rightly an atypical idealist.

Having said this, it is not an easy feat. Being a Bangladeshi, it is not easy to put only Waheed with his ideology in a bubble without the historical rubble. Because his fans, even in the aftermath, think of him as just that, uncontaminated as the raindrops, pure as the driven snow, who never betrays a poet’s imagination. For many years after the war, when I rekindle my frozen memory of the somewhat snapped link with my dark hero, since I am that precocious fourth grader, I retrieve him from a memory storage in a holographic projection, as it were, with awful clarity. Curious as it is, this shocking revelation isn’t a case of a novelty wearing off, rather one of idolatry, to the point of awakening him from his crypt. Emboldened by this blind loyalty, I place him in the forefront of my thoughts; this dandy, debonair hero, pulled up from my memory bank. With little hope, or none at all, for all that is worth, and much for his fans’ sake, as well as mine, this figment of my imagination lends itself to a legacy within a legacy. Like Hamlet’s ghost, it haunts to goad me farther to the brink of God-knows-what, to unravel a mystery about him that the world knows not. This spell, fogs all my critical thinking; an insane craving resurfaces, strong and ravenous that cannot dispel my thoughts about him. Even better that I retreat into a fantasy world to shape him as whatever I wish in my story, a full blooded lover, or platonic, as decreed by our circumstance. 

Platonic, now there’s a thought. At best, this can clue me in to seek out a new dimension in Waheed’s gripping love scenes. That which may assist in eliciting his personal thoughts on romance through his movies. He is not an incidental hero, who perchance takes Lollywod by the storm. What is it after all, that makes Waheed’s love scenes a cut above the rest, thus far special? Watching Waheed, in circumspect and maturity, I say this, that even in his most flirtatious roles, there is a fascinating underlay. An aspect, of a shadow reality, which elude the viewers. In essence, an urgency to define love as fulfilling and an undying emotion, which Waheed the persona, exudes almost involuntarily. His nuanced performances of intimacy, the touches, the facial expressions, the linguistic flourishes of sweet endearments, poured into the ears of his leading ladies, are all accomplished with such dexterity that the self and the art bond indistinguishably. Hence, Waheed the mask, and Waheed the man, converge into one whole inseparable entity, alluding to an unscripted streaming. 

To tie up the loose ends, his romantic roles translate, by far, into a fusion; a fusion of the physical and the spiritual which dictates the former to be a stepping stone to a higher ground of love. And in his passionate pursuance, this zeal for love is akin to bandagi and zindagi. Something, not sought after by the majority of actors, but all too uncommon a concept; an idea of resolute love, which resides in the soul to mean that he is never really in love with the person, but with the idea of love itself in the spirit, which he strives to conceptualise and perfect in its abstraction. 

What’s more? To understand Waheed, I delve deeper into his fundamental ideals. It dawns upon me that Waheed’s movies unveil not just his artistic endeavour, but his life and death, and a potent philosophy all entwined in one seamless composition. It is very convincing that the man that he is, the lover that he acts, are all but in pursuit of love for humanity, truth, beauty and fairness. And as I stumble on the newspaper, Dawn: In Memoriam, The Mystery Behind Waheed Murad, my inkling is corroborated; that the coded messages conveyed in Zubaida, Bandagi, Samundar, Mastana Mahi, and Naag Mani are all but well thought out allegories, central to his core beliefs of religious equality, and mutual bonding in a country torn apart by ravages of the war and zealous stupidity. This uncompromising situation obstructing to find a common-ground for union, empathy and egalitarianism, disturbs his equilibrium profoundly. The irreconcilable wave of religious apathy, social and political disparity, precludes him to achieve poetic justice to a fatal consequence; an irreparable loss pushing his fans to the edge of inconsolable grief.

He plays his finale well as he departs backstage after the last curtain drops. As he dies in carelessness, for all it may seem, a death most tragic, but certainly not in vain. Because, he has never really rendered himself off-limits to his fans. His remains burn aflame in their tender love for him, as he appears and disappears in a stream of consciousness, as in his innovative stream-of-consciousness movie, Isharaa, an example of his artistic prowess.

In fact, Elvis has never left the building. His signature writ large on the silver screen, the appealing smiles of youth, moody, blues looks, and croaky, sexy voice-overs with a marked air of romance, set him apart from casual ordinariness; a cast, not from the same mold, as the other actors of his time.

Lest the world forgets, he is that Sufi steeped in love, that poet lost in lyrics, and that postmodern visionary drunk with idealism. But also an actor who lives to die another day. He, who offers himself to posterity in all earnestness, not in the sense of a celebrity hero, but as a question for those, who pine away for him, to wonder, and to ponder timelessly about Waheed Murad, the man. Hence, his fans remember this powerful enigma, as mei aisa ak sawaal hu; he is that unanswered question; he is that unfolded mystery.

It may very well be that Waheed is none of this, but exceptionally talented entertainer, made larger than life. However, to picture him as an iconic image, I retrace this journey at a behest of my muse which hints at all these possibilities. To conclude Waheed Murad’s inconclusive tale, one may gauge him to be a sentient human, existing within the subliminal cinemas of his mind, and essentially, in the futuristic outreach of his arts.

“Bad Bone” by Mehreen Ahmed

24 Feb

Bad Bone by Mehreen Ahmed: Publisher Storyland Literary Review


The cafe hummed a note of non-rhythmic jingle. I sat with a glass of sparkling water reading Fitzgerald’s Tender is the Night; deep in reading,I took a sip occasionally. As it stands, the passages of infidelity bothered me more than the stylistic complexity of the book. It resonated of something that I did not wish to remember. A wind picked up just outside the glassed window. My attention diverted because of an intermittent, yet twiggy knock on the pane. A tall gum tree stood just outside; a sudden blast tore off a branch and felled it on the sill. I looked at it briefly and resumed with my study of the characters.

A sea of snow; the whispering winds of quietness. I reflected on a placid icy slope of a winter afternoon; silent like a still painting, my face stood out amongst the cafe crowd. Not a sore thumb, as…

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An open letter to Mehreen Ahmed from Joan Eyles Johnson, the winner of the Earnest Hemingway Prize for short fiction, 2016: Moirae by Mehreen Ahmed.

11 Feb

Dear Mehreen,

As an English teacher, I found some of it disturbing with spelling errors and switching back and forth with punctuation and long passages that seem unconnected, or maybe a short story in a longer story and the inconsistency of the narrator who seems to know some grand literature and makes me wonder how it was learned in a poor country. In other words, it confusing and difficult as an English teacher to read.

Now as a writer, I am impressed by the literary references, the beautiful and often lush descriptive metaphors and strong storytelling talent that continues throughout the book. I see the stream-of-consciousness and juxtaposition of styles as following Ezra Pound’s “Make it new.”

As a teacher of creative writing, I would tighten up many spots that I see to jar the reader or even yank the reader violently from one narrative to another.

Over all, Moirae is a beautiful example of an earnest attempt at a new kind of writing, and that is commendable, however, I wish I could talk with you as you completed each chapter, which by the way is beautifully divided and managed. I like the Faulknerian switch in point of view from first chapter to the second. I would have asked you delineate the characters in such a way that their family relationships were made even more clear. The thing I most liked was the strangeness of the setting, the fact that I was never sure of what and where and if in your novel. I like that very much. I like your voice, Mehreen.


Character Interview Number 40 – Nalia

16 Jan

Library of Erana

Tell Us About Yourself

Name: Nalia

Age: 16

Please tell us a little about yourself. I was born on a planet much like earth, but with two moons, I live in a village called the Lost Winds. This planet is situated in another galaxy far away from the galaxy where the blue planet Earth is. However, this planet is also blue and life has existed here for billions of years. The essential celestial gasses such oxygen, hydrogen, carbon- dioxide and nitrogen have also made us much like the people of the planet earth.
Describe your appearance in 10 words or less. I look like a human, but taller and thinner than an average human girl of my age. I have curly blue long hair all the way to the waist and a leopard skin. I have three fingers on two hands and three toes on two large feet. My eyes…

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